How to get rid of a charley horse: This problem plagues athletes and sedentary folks alike. If you’ve ever been jolted out of sleep by a searing pain in your leg that leaves you gasping for breath, you know all too well how painful a muscle cramp can be. If you’ve never experienced a charley horse (sometimes misspelled Charlie Horse), you can count yourself lucky. In this article, we share the four of the most proven methods to overcome or prevent muscle cramps.

What is a charley horse?

A charley horse, as they are most often referred to, is an involuntary reaction that causes the nerves that control the muscle (usually the calf muscle) to misfire, causing the muscle to freeze and lock into a contracted position. A charley horse can be quite painful and can leave you hobbling around for a few days. Besides calf muscles, the muscles in the soles of the feet can cramp as well, which can also be painful. Cramps can occur in any part of the body when muscles over exert. For example, a drummer might get hand cramps after performing outside at a summer event.

Fun related article: origin of the phrase charley horse

What causes muscle cramps?

There is a bit of debate in the scientific community about what causes a charley horse because they often occur in healthy people, sometimes striking at night for no apparent reason. For example, muscle cramps often occur in middle-aged and older people, but they are also common in athletes (long-distance runners and cyclists) and those who maintain active lifestyles. What is known, is that certain groups are more prone than others and that certain factors are likely to increase the risk.

People at risk to get a charley horse:

Here is a quick list of groups most at risk for muscle cramps:

  • Athletes
  • People who are dehydrated or who exert muscles in hot weather
  • People with certain medical conditions including nerve disorders, cirrhosis, an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), and people who take certain medications.
  • Women who wear high heels
  • The elderly
  • Pregnant women

Related article: Significant risks of low magnesium during pregnancy

Long-distance runners and cyclists, especially individuals who exercise regularly, often experience cramps. This may be purely because of over-use, but it may also be because these individuals have electrolyte deficiencies or imbalances after losing critical electrolytes in sweat.

Dehydration is another factor associated with getting a charley  horse, which of course, affects athletes. Other risks include inactivity, anatomical conditions like flat feet; physical conditions such as pregnancy; or the use of certain medications. Women who wear high heels may experience muscle cramps because high heel-shoes position the feet and legs into a cramp-prone position.

1. How to get rid of a charley horse – maintain electrolyte balance

A mineral deficiency or an imbalance of electrolytes such as magnesium, potassium, calcium, and sodium is also likely to increase one’s odds of getting a charley horse.

Related article: Natural electrolytes are essential for life, health, and peak performance

Electrolytes are certain minerals that play an important role in muscle function. Low levels of any of these minerals can allow the muscle to contract, but prevent it from relaxing, Some researchers believe a mineral imbalance can negatively affect blood flow to the muscles and that a deficiency of some minerals. So, to get rid of a charley horse or prevent one in the future, consider adding essential electrolytes.

  • Potassium: A lack of potassium can interfere with the muscles’ ability to use glycogen, a sugar that is the muscles’ main source of energy.
  • Sodium: This is an essential electrolyte; however, most people get plenty of it in their diet. Sodium should only be a nutritional concern if your intake is low or you sweat a lot while working or exercising. If either of these two instances are the case, then replacing sodium is something you should consider.
  • Magnesium: An essential mineral involved in muscle function that helps muscles to contract and relax.
  • Chloride: an electrolyte that helps your body regulate the level of fluids in your body. Chloride’s role in fluid balance makes it especially important because dehydration can be a contributing factor to muscle cramps.

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2. Supplement with magnesium

A few years ago, researchers in the United Kingdom found that 300 mg of supplemental magnesium (as magnesium citrate) reduced nighttime or nocturnal leg cramps in individuals who suffered chronic leg cramps. Like magnesium, potassium is an electrolyte found in your muscles. In fact, when your muscles contract, they release potassium into the surrounding tissue.

Electrolytes are certain minerals that play an important role in muscle function. Low levels of any of these minerals can allow the muscle to contract, but prevent it from relaxing.

As mentioned earlier, pregnant women often experience muscle cramps, and it’s no wonder given that there is a high need for magnesium in expectant mothers, and low magnesium is one of the strong theories related to muscle cramps.

3. Correct dehydration

A third preventative measure, especially if you sweat in hot weather, exercise for long periods of time, or work in hot conditions, is to maintain adequate fluid intake. Dehydration can be life threatening, but did you know that mild dehydration reduces your blood volume, which, in turn, can reduce the supply of oxygen to your muscles? When the oxygen supply is reduced to the muscles, they can go into spasm. Be sure to drink plenty of water during the day interspersed with electrolytes.

But don’t rely on sports drinks to prevent muscle cramps. Many sports drinks can contain as much sugar as fruit punch and usually only provide sodium and potassium.

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4. Stretch properly

If a cramp does occur, try stretching the affected muscles. For calf-muscle cramps, for instance, try stretching your calf muscle by pulling your toes towards your knees with the affected leg extended straight. Second, relax in a warm bath or take a hot shower (allowing water to hit the affected area) to help relax the muscle. Third, gently massage the affected area, being careful not to apply too much pressure. You can also apply an ice pack to the sore muscle to reduce pain and swelling. If the affected area still hurts, treat it like you would an injured muscle, which means resting the affected leg and avoiding any further muscle strain.

Finally, if you have chronic or severe leg cramps, contact your doctor. It may be the sign of a more serious condition, so it’s important to check with your physician first.

Sources:

  1. Leg Cramps at Night. Electronic version available online at http://www.digitalnaturopath.com/cond/C466089.htm.
  2. Prevention Magazine. The Complete Book of Vitamins and Minerals, Rodale Press: New York, 1998, pp: 319-325.
  3. Roffe C, Sills S, Crome P, Jones P. Randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of persistent leg cramps. Med Sci Monit. 2002 8(5): CR326-30